9th Cir

Ninth Circuit Rules

Table of Contents

FRAP 4

APPEAL AS OF RIGHT - WHEN TAKEN

(a) Appeal in a Civil Case.

(1) Time for Filing a Notice of Appeal.

(A) In a civil case, except as provided in Rules 4(a)(1)(B), 4(a)(4), and 4(c), the notice of appeal required by Rule 3 must be filed with the district clerk within 30 days after the judgment or order appealed from is entered.

(B) When the United States or its officer or agency is a party, the notice of appeal may be filed by any party within 60 days after the judgment or order appealed from is entered.

(2) Filing Before Entry of Judgment. A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision or order - but before the entry of the judgment or order - is treated as filed on the date of and after the entry.

(3) Multiple Appeals. If one party timely files a notice of appeal, any other party may file a notice of appeal within 14 days after the date when the first notice was filed, or within the time otherwise prescribed by this Rule 4(a), whichever period ends later.

(4) Effect of a Motion on a Notice of Appeal.

(A) If a party timely files in the district court any of the following motions under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, the time to file an appeal runs for all parties from the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion:

(i) for judgment under Rule 50(b);

(ii) to amend or make additional factual findings under Rule 52(b), whether or not granting the motion would alter the judgment;

(iii) for attorney's fees under Rule 54 if the district court extends the time to appeal under Rule 58;

(iv) to alter or amend the judgment under Rule 59;

(v) for a new trial under Rule 59; or

(vi) for relief under Rule 60 if the motion is filed no later than 10 days (computed using Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 6(a)) after the judgment is entered.

(B)

(i) If a party files a notice of appeal after the court announces or enters a judgment - but before it disposes of any motion listed in Rule 4(a)(4)(A) - the notice becomes effective to appeal a judgment or order, in whole or in part, when the order disposing of the last such remaining motion is entered.

(ii) A party intending to challenge an order disposing of any motion listed in Rule 4(a)(4)(A), or a judgment altered or amended upon such a motion, must file a notice of appeal, or an amended notice of appeal - in compliance with Rule 3(c) - within the time prescribed by this Rule measured from the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion.

(iii) No additional fee is required to file an amended notice.

(5) Motion for Extension of Time.

(A) The district court may extend the time to file a notice of appeal if:

(i) a party so moves no later than 30 days after the time prescribed by this Rule 4(a) expires; and

(ii) that party shows excusable neglect or good cause.

(B) A motion filed before the expiration of the time prescribed in Rule 4(a)(1) or (3) may be ex parte unless the court requires otherwise. If the motion is filed after the expiration of the prescribed time, notice must be given to the other parties in accordance with local rules.

(C) No extension under this Rule 4(a)(5) may exceed 30 days after the prescribed time or 10 days after the date when the order granting the motion is entered, whichever is later.

(6) Reopening the Time to File an Appeal. The district court may reopen the time to file an appeal for a period of 14 days after the date when its order to reopen is entered, but only if all the following conditions are satisfied:

(A) the motion is filed within 180 days after the judgment or order is entered or within 7 days after the moving party receives notice of the entry, whichever is earlier;

(B) the court finds that the moving party was entitled to notice of the entry of the judgment or order sought to be appealed but did not receive the notice from the district court or any party within 21 days after entry; and

(C) the court finds that no party would be prejudiced.

(7) Entry Defined. A judgment or order is entered for purposes of this Rule 4(a) when it is entered in compliance with Rules 58 and 79(a) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(b) Appeal in a Criminal Case.

(1) Time for Filing a Notice of Appeal.

(A) In a criminal case, a defendant's notice of appeal must be filed in the district court within 10 days after the later of:

(i) the entry of either the judgment or the order being appealed; or

(ii) the filing of the government's notice of appeal.

(B) When the government is entitled to appeal, its notice of appeal must be filed in the district court within 30 days after the later of:

(i) the entry of the judgment or order being appealed; or

(ii) the filing of a notice of appeal by any defendant.

(2) Filing Before Entry of Judgment. A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision, sentence, or order - but before the entry of the judgment or order - is treated as filed on the date of and after the entry.

(3) Effect of a Motion on a Notice of Appeal.

(A) If a defendant timely makes any of the following motions under the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, the notice of appeal from a judgment of conviction must be filed within 10 days after the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion, or within 10 days after the entry of the judgment of conviction, whichever period ends later. This provision applies to a timely motion:

(i) for judgment of acquittal under Rule 29;

(ii) for a new trial under Rule 33, but if based on newly discovered evidence, only if the motion is made no later than 10 days after the entry of the judgment; or

(iii) for arrest of judgment under Rule 34.

(B) A notice of appeal filed after the court announces a decision, sentence, or order - but before it disposes of any of the motions referred to in Rule 4(b)(3)(A) - becomes effective upon the later of the following:

(i) the entry of the order disposing of the last such remaining motion; or

(ii) the entry of the judgment of conviction.

(C) A valid notice of appeal is effective - without amendment - to appeal from an order disposing of any of the motions referred to in Rule 4(b)(3)(A).

(4) Motion for Extension of Time. Upon a finding of excusable neglect or good cause, the district court may - before or after the time has expired, with or without motion and notice - extend the time to file a notice of appeal for a period not to exceed 30 days from the expiration of the time otherwise prescribed by this Rule 4(b).

(5) Jurisdiction. The filing of a notice of appeal under this Rule 4(b) does not divest a district court of jurisdiction to correct a sentence under Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 35(c), nor does the filing of a motion under 35(c) affect the validity of a notice of appeal filed before entry of the order disposing of the motion.

(6) Entry Defined. A judgment or order is entered for purposes of this Rule 4(b) when it is entered on the criminal docket.

(c) Appeal by an Inmate Confined in an Institution.

(1) If an inmate confined in an institution files a notice of appeal in either a civil or a criminal case, the notice is timely if it is deposited in the institution's internal mail system on or before the last day for filing. If an institution has a system designed for legal mail, the inmate must use that system to receive the benefit of this rule. Timely filing may be shown by a declaration in compliance with 28 U.S.C.  1746 or by a notarized statement, either of which must set forth the date of deposit and state that first-class postage has been prepaid.

(2) If an inmate files the first notice of appeal in a civil case under this Rule 4(c), the 14-day period provided in Rule 4(a)(3) for another party to file a notice of appeal runs from the date when the district court dockets the first notice.

(3) When a defendant in a criminal case files a notice of appeal under this Rule 4(c), the 30-day period for the government to file its notice of appeal runs from the entry of the judgment or order appealed from or from the district court's docketing of the defendant's notice of appeal, whichever is later.

(d) Mistaken Filing in the Court of Appeals. If a notice of appeal in either a civil or a criminal case is mistakenly filed in the court of appeals, the clerk of that court must note on the notice the date when it was received and send it to the district clerk. The notice is then considered filed in the district court on the date so noted.

Cross-Reference: Circuit Rule 3-5, Recalcitrant Witness Appeals; Circuit Rule 10-2, Record on Appeal; and Circuit Rule 27-4, Emergency Criminal Interlocutory Appeals.

CIRCUIT RULE 4-1

COUNSEL IN CRIMINAL APPEALS

This rule applies to appeals in categories of cases listed in 18 U.S.C. sec. 3006A.

(a) Continuity of Representation on Appeal

Counsel in criminal cases, whether retained or appointed by the district court, shall ascertain whether the defendant wishes to appeal and file a notice of appeal upon the defendant's request. Counsel shall continue to represent the defendant on appeal until counsel is relieved and replaced by substitute counsel or by the defendant pro se in accordance with this rule. If counsel was appointed by the district court pursuant to 18 U.S.C. sec. 3006A and a notice of appeal has been filed, counsel's appointment automatically shall continue on appeal.

(b) Application for Indigent Status on Appeal

A person for whom counsel was appointed by the district court under section 3006A of the Criminal Justice Act may appeal to this court without prepayment of fees and costs or security therefor and without filing the affidavit required by 28 U.S.C.sec. 1915(a).

If the district court did not appoint counsel, but the defendant or petitioner appears to qualify for appointment of counsel on appeal, retained counsel, or the defendant if the defendant proceeded pro se before the district court, shall file on the client's behalf a financial affidavit (CJA Form 23). If the notice of appeal is filed at the time of sentencing, the motions to proceed on appeal in forma pauperis and for appointment of counsel shall be presented to the district court at that time. If the district court finds that appointment of counsel is warranted, the court shall appoint the counsel who represented the defendant in district court, a Criminal Justice Act defender, or a panel attorney to represent the defendant or petitioner on appeal. The district court shall require appointed counsel and the court reporter to prepare the appropriate CJA form for preparation of the reporter's transcript. A copy of the order appointing counsel on appeal shall be sent forthwith by the Clerk of the district court to the Clerk of this court. Substitute counsel shall within seven (7) days of appointment file a notice of appearance in this court.

If the district court declines to appoint counsel on appeal, and if counsel below believes that the district court erred, counsel shall, within fourteen (14) days from the district court's order, file with the Clerk of this court a motion for appointment of counsel accompanied by a financial affidavit (CJA Form 23).

(c) Withdrawal of Counsel After Filing the Notice of Appeal

A motion to withdraw as counsel on appeal after the filing of the notice of appeal, where counsel is retained in a criminal case or appointed under the Criminal Justice Act, shall be filed with the Clerk of this court within twenty-one (21) days after the filing of the notice of appeal and shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons including:

(1) A substitution of counsel which indicates that new counsel has been retained to represent defendant; or

(2) The defendant's completed financial affidavit (CJA Form 23) and motion for appointment of counsel under the Criminal Justice Act; or

(3) An affidavit or signed statement from the defendant stating that the defendant consents to appointed counsel's being relieved and requesting appointment of substitute counsel; or

(4) A motion by defendant to proceed pro se; or

(5) An affidavit or signed statement from the defendant showing that the defendant has been advised of his or her rights with regard to the appeal and expressly stating that the defendant wishes to dismiss the appeal voluntarily.

Any motion filed pursuant to this section not accompanied by defendant's affidavit or signed statement shall set forth the reasons for such omission.

(6) Alternatively, if after conscientious review of the record appointed counsel believes the appeal is frivolous, on or before the due date for the opening brief, appointed counsel shall file a separate motion to withdraw and an opening brief that identifies anything in the record that might arguably support the appeal, with citations to the record and applicable legal authority. The motion and brief shall be accompanied by proof of service on defendant. See Anders v. California, 386 U.S. 738 (1967), and United States v. Griffy, 895 F.2d 561 (9th Cir. 1990). The cover of the opening brief shall state that the brief is being filed pursuant to Anders v. California. The filing of a motion to withdraw as counsel along with a proposed Anders brief serves to vacate the previously established briefing schedule.

To facilitate this Court's independent review of the district court proceedings, counsel shall designate all appropriate reporter's transcripts, including but not limited to complete transcripts for the plea hearing and sentencing hearing, and shall include the transcripts in the excerpts of record. Counsel are advised to consult Ninth Circuit Rule 30-1.

When an appointed attorney has properly moved for leave to withdraw pursuant to Anders and has included all appropriate reporter's transcripts, this Court will establish a briefing schedule permitting the defendant to file a pro se supplemental opening brief raising any issues that defendant wishes to present. The order will also direct appellee by a date certain either to file its answering brief or notify the court by letter that no answering brief will be filed.

(d) Motions for Leave to Proceed Pro Se in Direct Criminal Appeals

The court will permit defendants in direct criminal appeals to represent themselves if: (1) the defendant's request to proceed pro se and the waiver of the right to counsel are knowing, intelligent and unequivocal; (2) the defendant is apprised of the dangers and disadvantages of self-representation on appeal; and (3) self- representation would not undermine a just and orderly resolution of the appeal. If, after granting leave to proceed pro se the court finds that appointment of counsel is essential to a just and orderly resolution of the appeal, leave to proceed pro se may be modified or withdrawn. (New 7/1/2001)

(e) Post Appeal Proceedings

If the decision of this court is adverse to the client, in part or in full, counsel, whether appointed or retained, shall, within 14 days after entry of judgment or denial of a petition for rehearing, advise the client of the right to initiate further review by filing a petition for a writ of certiorari in the United States Supreme Court. See Sup. Ct. R. 13, 14. If in counsel’s considered judgment there are no grounds for seeking Supreme Court review that are non-frivolous and consistent with the standards for filing a petition, see Sup. Ct. R. 10, counsel shall further notify the client that counsel intends to move this court for leave to withdraw as counsel of record if the client insists on filing a petition in violation of Sup. Ct. R. 10.

In cases in which a defendant who had retained counsel or proceeded pro se in this court wishes to file a petition for writ of certiorari in the United States Supreme Court or wishes to file an opposition to a certiorari petition, and is financially unable to obtain representation for this purpose, this Court will entertain a motion for appointment of counsel within 21 days from judgment or the denial of rehearing. It is the duty of retained counsel to assist the client in preparing and filing a motion for appointment of counsel and a financial affidavit under this subsection.

If requested to do so by the client, appointed or retained counsel shall petition the Supreme Court for certiorari only if in counsel’s considered judgment sufficient grounds exist for seeking Supreme Court review. See Sup. Ct. R. 10.

Any motion by appointed or retained counsel to withdraw as counsel of record shall be made within 21 days of judgment or the denial of rehearing and shall state the efforts made by counsel to notify the client. A cursory statement of frivolity is not a sufficient basis for withdrawal. See, Austin v. United States, 513 U.S. 5 (1994) (per curiam); Sup. Ct. R. 10. Within this same period, counsel shall serve a copy of any such motion on the client. If relieved by this Court, counsel shall, within seven (7) days after such motion is granted, notify the client in writing and, if unable to do so, inform this Court.

Unless counsel is relieved of his or her appointment by this Court, counsel’s appointment continues through the resolution of certiorari proceedings and includes providing representation when an opposing party files a petition for certiorari.

(f) Counsel's Claim for Fees and Expenses

An attorney appointed by the court shall be compensated for services and reimbursed for expenses reasonably incurred as set forth in the Criminal Justice Act.

All vouchers claiming compensation for services rendered in this court under the Criminal Justice Act shall be submitted to the Clerk of this court no later than 45 days after the final disposition of the case in this court or after the filing of a petition for certiorari, whichever is later. Subsequent work on the appeal may be claimed on a supplemental voucher. A voucher for work on a petition for a writ of certiorari must be accompanied by a copy of the petition. If a party wishes interim payment, a motion for such relief may be filed.

The Clerk shall forward all vouchers, including those requesting payment in excess of the statutory maximum, to the Appellate Commissioner, for approval of such compensation as the Appellate Commissioner deems reasonable and appropriate under the Criminal Justice Act. If the Appellate Commissioner concludes that an amount less than that requested by the attorney is appropriate, he or she shall communicate to the attorney the basis for reducing the claim. The Appellate Commissioner will offer the attorney an opportunity to respond regarding the propriety and reasonableness of the voucher before approving a reduction in the amount. If the amount requested is reduced, and the attorney seeks reconsideration, the Appellate Commissioner shall receive and review the request for reconsideration and may grant it in full or in part. If the Appellate Commissioner does not grant a request for reconsideration in full or in part, the request shall be referred to and decided by: (1) the authoring judge on the merits panel if the case was submitted to a merits panel; or (2) the appropriate administrative judge if the case was resolved before submission to a merits panel.

Whenever the Appellate Commissioner certifies payment in excess of the statutory maximum provided by the Criminal Justice Act, the Clerk shall forward the voucher to the appropriate administrative judge for review and approval. (new rule 7/95)

Cross Reference: FRAP 42, Voluntary Dismissal, FRAP 46(c), Attorneys, Circuit Rule 27-9.1.